The nearest thing I can think of is Lindholm's Windsinger series, in which the magical control of weather is politically important.
Is there any sf with politically important plate tectonics? I realize it would take immense amounts of time and unlikely cultural attention spans, but I can live with that.
Clarification: When I said "climate war", I didn't mean something usual like fighting over resources which have become limited as a result of natural climate change. I want scope! sense of wonder! difference from the news!-- I'm looking for sf about people who can at least somewhat control the climate and don't agree about what should be done with it.
See also "Primary Education Among the Camiroi", in which a class in world government means actually governing a world (but not a first aspect world, that's cruel).